Examples: Jilu axona, Azerbaijan Jewish axxona/axona (Garbell 1965, 297), Tisqopa axona (Rubba, personal correspondence)

Examples: Jilu axona, Azerbaijan Jewish axxona/axona (Garbell 1965, 297), Tisqopa axona (Rubba, personal correspondence)

(20) The definition of to have ‘brother’, aha within the BT, features on top of that started augmented, even though this function is additionally utilized in Turoyo. Hertevin provides one another ?aha and you will ?ahona (Jastrow 1988, 180), but Mandaic has only aha (Macuch 1965, 495).

Likewise, additional NENA, we have other terms: Mandaic keraya (Macuch 1965, 509), Turoyo raglo (Jastrow 1985, 219)

(21) One to as an alternative strange items which is attested in most NENA languages except Sanandaj Religious (and therefore probably merely a chance gap regarding the evidence) are aqla ‘foot’. Krotkoff (1985, 130-31) contends that phrase derives from the options ql ‘to getting crooked’. All the dialects utilize the form aqla, except Koy Sanjaq aqla and you may Tisqopa (?)aqIlta.

(22) Some other phrase talked about from the Krotkoff (1985, 131-thirty two, 134) is baxta ‘woman’, that has supplanted the fresh new Syriac atta throughout NENA, yet not for the Turoyo or Mandaic. It word seems to result of Kurdish baxt ‘honor’. It’s fascinating to note one an uneven plural endures in the numerous dialects: Tisqopa (?)InsI, Azerbaijan Jewish nise, and you can Halabja inse.

(23) Surprise creativity discussed by the Noldeke (1868, 59) try rxata, corresponding to Syriac rhat. The change away from h to help you x contained in this one word is found in all of the NENA dialects in which the verb is attested. Examples: Sanandaj Christian raxet (Panoussi 1990), Urmi roentgen-x-D (Hetzron 1969, 123), Jilu rxata, Hertevin rahet (Jastrow 1988, 222).

(24) Some other unanticipated development is the NENA verb ‘fear’, that takes this new variations zda?a, zdaya, and you will zdala from the various languages. Macuch and you can Panoussi (1974, 50) bring a prospective derivation throughout the Syriac ezda za ‘be shaken’. Variations toward infixed d can be found throughout new NENA dialects where in fact the options is actually attested: Halabja ilha zadyane ‘God-dreading (pl.)’, Jilu +zdale ‘he feared’, Aradhin iza:dIl ‘he fears’ (Krotkoff 1982, https://datingranking.net/es/haciendo-amigos/ 78), Zakho zde?lu ‘they feared’ (Sabar 1988, 1).(9)

Not all of pinpointing features of NENA are found either in Turoyo otherwise Mandaic

In my opinion that over will make it clear that NENA languages show an array of unique traits which are discovered neither in the previous attested different Aramaic neither on the other life languages. These features diversity along side domain names from phonology, morphology, while the lexicon.

Particularly, the dialects from NENA agree inside requirements dos, 9, fourteen, fifteen, 16, 21, and you can twenty two. All languages in which you will find guidance plus agree on conditions 20, 23, and you can 24.

All but Halabja consent for the conditions 8 and you may eleven. Traditional 6 is located in all the dialects but Halabja, Hertevin, and you may Sanandaj Religious.

Even with the internal departments, the new NENA languages form a stunningly coherent category, split demonstrably from both Turoyo and you may Mandaic. The positioning ones dialects outside the NENA pale is out of matter.

The degree that features was mutual all over NENA is specially epic whenever we take into account the astounding differences between the different languages. The fresh influence regarding almost every other dialects to the NENA could have been one another deep and wide, while the degree of common intelligibility between dialects can be quite brief. Many mutual innovations argue strongly to have a familiar resource from the fresh NENA dialects, in a choice of a single dialect or in a small grouping of closely related dialects. Meanwhile, we can detect several important bundles from isoglosses which represent the limitations away from dialect organizations.

a) The fresh new dialect of Halabja does not show particular very important innovations and this can be found through most of the remainder of the dialects. It generally does not means an excellent CCiC-ce preterite out-of intransitive verbs (8), this has no b(it)- upcoming marker (10), and also zero 3rd people only 1 copula with 1 (11). It is one particular fundamental division between dialects out-of NENA. It means that remaining dialects form a group whereby innovations bequeath while Halabja stayed unaffected by him or her.